The Website is now part of

Welcome to the new home of the ORB on the web!

The Website is now part of and does not longer exists.

The ORB has moved to its new home at the College of Staten Island, City University of New York.
Unfortunately, its name has changed, since we can no longer use our old address.

There is also a new search engine on most of the pages which should facilitate finding what you want quickly.

Your old bookmarks should work, with an important change: Make sure that all the filenames in your bookmarks are in lower case letters and that you remove the old address “” from the path. For example, an address of one of the internal ORB bookmarks should look like this:


with all filenames in lower case. The old paths are still there, so if you are having trouble locating a page, it is probably due to the fact that you are missing either “” or your filenames have upper case letters.

The new Editor is Kathryn Talarico, who can be reached at
The ORB is an academic site, written and maintained by medieval scholars for the benefit of their fellow instructors and serious students. All articles have been judged by at least two peer reviewers. Authors are held to high standards of accuracy, currency, and relevance to the field of medieval studies. NOTE: ORB’S OCLC number is 35987956. Quick connect to other major medieval studies sites: Labyrinth | Internet Medieval Sourcebook | Netserf | Argos | World Wide Web Virtual Library/Medieval